AUGUST 17 2007 09:07h

Rummel: Tito’s Regime Took Million Lives


The American historian claims that partisans killed half a million people during WWII and even more after the war.

Spurred by a statement by Krk Bishop Valter Zupan who equalised Tito and his crimes with those of Adolf Hitler and the recent probing of a fox hole in Tezno near Maribor in which there are allegedly at least 15,000 victims of post-war mass executions, we dealt with the subject of the deadliest regimes of the 20th century, which includes Josip Broz Tito, according to the greatest American expert on issues of genocide.

Rudolph Joseph Rummel

Rudolph Joseph Rummel (born on October 21, 1932) is a political science professor at the University of Hawaii. He dedicated his career to gathering data on collective violence and war to help their resolution and elimination. His research shows that six times more people died in the past century due to democide than any of the wars in the 20th century. The author wrote 24 books on the subject of collective vipolence and war and the notion of democide.

GENOCIDE: the killing of people by the authorities because of their affiliation to certain groups (race, religion, language, ethniticity).

POLITICALLY MOTIVATED KILLINGS: the killing of people by the authorities for their political affiliation and actions.

MASS KILLINGS: the unjustified killing of people by the authorities.

DEMOCIDE: the killing of people by the authorities that includes genocide, politically motivated and mass killings.

placed among mega killers 

Rudolph Joseph Rummel, an American professor of political science, conducted research relating to the deadliest regimes of the 20th century. According to Rummel there are several categories of infamous regimes, depending on the number of lives a certain regime took.

Professor Rummel stresses that during World War Two, democide had been committed in Yugoslavia by the Nazis, Chetniks, Ustashi and Tito’s partisans. The author says that during the war the Ustashi killed more than 650,000 people, mostly Serbs, and Tito’s regime took half a million lives, mostly anti-communists, Ustashi and the regime’s critics. After the war the number rose, Rummel said.

The biggest obstacle to his research was that one could not draw a clear line between Yugoslav soldiers who died fighting against each other (Chetniks, partisans, Ustashi), Rummel stressed.

According to his data, the partisans killed some 100,000 people by July 1944, after which they became a legal army and killed another half a million people by the end of the war. The Chetniks killed some 100,000 people during the entire war, the author says.

Forced labour and the imprisonment of all enemies of the regime were typical for Tito’s reign, as well as the entire eastern Europe of that time. Live in camps for enemies of the regime was hell. Famine, overcrowdedness, brutality and exceptionally poor living conditions took some 200,000 lives, according to Rummel. The most infamous camp of that sort was Goli Otok.

The number of victims reaches two million? 

After the war Tito’s rule persecuted and killed Germans, Italians, Muslims and Albanians, says the

Deadliest regime

The author calls the first and most deadly category DECA-MEGAKILLERS, placing in it the People’s Republic of China in which, in the period from 1949 to 1987 around 76 million people lost their lives. The USSR follows (1917-67, some 62 million), colonialism (20th century, some 50 million people), Germany (1933-49, 21 million) and China (1928-49, ten million).

Rummel calls the second category MEGAKILLERS and it includes Yugoslavia. The first spot is taken up by Japan in the period of 1936-45 when almost six million people lost their lives. Mao Zedong’s China (1922-48, 3.5 million), Cambodia (1975-79, two million), Turkey (1909-18, 1.8 million), Vietnam (1945-87, 1.6 million), Poland (1945-48, 1.5 million), Pakistan (1958-87, 1.5 million) and YUGOSLAVIA in which, according to Rummel, 1.7 million people had been killed in the period from 1944 through 1987.


On the other hand, the German string puppet, as Rummel calls the Independent State of Croatia (NDH, 1941-1945), killed some 650,000 people in its camps, mostly Jews, Serbs and Roma.

Rummel writes that during the war, Tito’s partisans killed some half a million people and after they came to power and until the end of the regime, they killed some 570,000 people, mostly Croatians. The author arrived at these numbers by comparing various figures by different historians. Taking into consideration their inclination towards one or the other regime, he extrapolated from their research mean values. In any case, he says Tito’s regime was responsible for at least 500,000 victims. The author is unequivocal concerning the historical assessment of Tito. For him Tito is a criminal just as Stalin, Hitler, Pol Pot and similar dictators. Rummel also stressed that there was an unjust differentiation between “left and right mass killers”. While right-wing killers such as Pinochet will easily be condemned by the people, people will more often find excuses and justifications for left killers. And crime is a crime.

In the attachment is a complete table of the number of victims in the former Yugoslavia according to the year and reasons for which they were killed.